General Urology

What is Urology?

Urology is a field of medicine that focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of diseases and disorders stemming from the urinary tract as well as from the reproductive system in males. The specialists of Academic Urology & Urogynecology of Arizona address a broad spectrum of urology problems with state-of-the-art urologic care and treatment for men and women, including naturopathic medicine, pharmacologic therapies, and minimally invasive surgical procedures, like the da Vinci robotic prostatectomy for prostate cancer and robotic vaginal prolapse surgery.

What is a Urologist?

A physician who is trained to address issues of the urinary tract in men and women and the male reproductive system is a specialist known as a urologist. In addition to this focused area of study, urologists are trained in internal medicine, pediatrics, gynecology, and other medical specialties. Education requirements include a medical degree, the completion of an approved residency program, and general, clinical, and surgical experience. To be granted board certification, urologists must fulfill specific education and examination requirements as specified by the American Board of Urology. The doctors of Academic Urology & Urogynecology of Arizona are considered leaders in the field of urologic care for men and women in the state of Arizona as well as throughout the United States.


The kidneys are paired organs located within the abdominal cavity on either side of the spine. They are responsible for the filtering of blood and function by removing waste which is then carried to the bladder through tubes known as the ureters. When kidney functionality is impaired as a result of a congenital defect, infection, obstruction, tumor, or kidney stone, a patient is referred to a urologist. Depending upon the condition affecting the patient and the severity of the disorder, one or a combination of treatments may be recommended, such as laser lithotripsy for kidney stones and minimally invasive robotic nephrectomy surgery for kidney cancer. For more information on the kidneys, common conditions impairing function, and the treatments offered at Academic Urology & Urogynecology of Arizona, click on the links below:


The bladder is a hollow organ that rests on the pelvic floor. Urine that is excreted by the kidneys is deposited in the bladder through the ureters. The bladder then dispels urine via the urethra. Conditions of the bladder can be the source of pain and discomfort as well as urinary incontinence, or the inability to control the flow of urine. Such conditions include bladder infections, interstitial cystitis, stress incontinence, urge incontinence, as well as bladder stones and tumors. Depending upon the type and severity of the bladder condition, the doctors of Academic Urology & Urogynecology of Arizona may recommend one or a combination of treatments, including pharmacologic management, naturopathic therapies, or if deemed appropriate, surgery. Click on the links below to learn more about bladder conditions and the treatments offered by the urologic specialists of Academic Urology & Urogynecology of Arizona:

The Prostate

Found only in males, the prostate is a gland thats function is an essential part of the male reproductive system. It works by secreting proteins and hormones that are added to the ejaculatory fluid to protect sperm during their journey to an egg. When healthy, a prostate gland is roughly the size of a walnut. Located directly below the bladder and in front of the rectum, the prostate surrounds the urethra. Because of this location, conditions of the prostate, such as prostatitis, Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH), and prostate cancer, commonly affect the flow of urine from the bladder through the urethra, causing such symptoms as urinary urgency, urinary frequency, as well as a weak or obstructed urine stream. Through state-of-the-art treatments like GreenLight™ laser surgery for BPH and robotic surgery for prostate cancer, the urologists of Academic Urology & Urogynecology of Arizona seek to relieve the symptoms of the patient while minimizing the negative impact on sexual function, continence, and quality of life.

The Penis

The penis is a sexual organ in which urine is expelled. It is comprised of several components: the Glans or head, the corpus cavernosum and spongiosum, and the urethra. Congenital malformation, disease, and complications of surgery can be the source of embarrassment as well as urinary and sexual dysfunction in men. To treat a condition of the penis such as Peyronie’s disease, penoscrotal webbing, and hypospadias, the physicians of Academic Urology & Urogynecology of Arizona deploy minimally invasive procedures to improve aesthetic abnormalities and organ function.

The Testes

The testicles rest outside the abdominal cavity and are responsible for the production of sperm and testosterone. The sperm moves from the epididymis through the vas deferens to combine with fluid that is produced by the prostate and seminal vesicles. Examples of testicular disorders include male infertility, testicular cancer, hydrocele, etc. Men with such a condition are referred to urologic specialists, like those of Academic Urology & Urogynecology of Arizona.